<2> 阅读理解5篇文章，25题, 每题2分共50分;
Section 1 Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
1. [标准答案] [C]how
[选项分析] 根据语境，“新发现表明：快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。”[A] 为什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎样，多么 [D] 当…时候。根据语义分析，C选项填入原文，译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”，C为正确选项。
2. [标准答案] [B]In particular
[选项分析] [A] 反过来 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来说 根据前文语境，第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究，拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明，因此B选项更符合语境要求。
3. [标准答案] [D]necessary
[选项分析] [A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先，根据本句题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”要求填写形容词, 我们要考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。因此D选项最符合语境要求。
4. [标准答案] [C]optimism
[选项分析] [A]个人主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐观主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考查同后缀的名词辨析。根据原文主旨，探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么，衡量四个选项，只有C选项符合主旨要求。
5. [标准答案] [D]change
[选项分析] [A]发出回声 [B] 想念，错过 [C] 破坏 [D] 改变 根据原文语境，“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考查动宾搭配，宾语为“公司投资的方式”只有D选项搭配最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量，测量 [C] 发明 [D] 假定，设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” 根据原文语境，盖洛普咨询公司所做的应该是一个“既定事实”所以排除ACD。因此，B选项为最佳选项。
[选项分析] [A]确信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是，”
[选项分析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税过重的 [D]位于总部的 根据原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以肯定的是，公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句，先行词为area.对比四个选项，ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。因此，D选项，搭配前文area,构成“总部所在地”最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]解释 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 根据原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。
[选项分析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 等级[D]方法 根据原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中，破折号后面 “大小，产业，销售”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。因此，B选项最符合原文语境。
11.[标准答案] [A] desirable
[选项分析] 该空填的是形容词，用来修饰前面的名词place,并且在意义上也是对后面like growth in wages or population的解释，可以看出来应该是填褒义词，并且能修饰place.所以只有[A]desirable合适的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。
12. [标准答案] [B]held
[选项分析] 该句算是这一段的总结句，该段整体在描述幸福与投资之间的关系，而这一link就只能得出了，只有[B]held ”得出”符合语境。A resumed “重新开始”，C emerge “浮现”，D broke “破坏”。
13.[标准答案] [A] attribute
[选项分析]该空是一个which引导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地，动词的宾语就是前面的主句，强调“幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司”这一结论与后面“所做决定会偏草率”之间的关系，能看出是一个因果关系，因此答案选择[A]attribute 与to 搭配表示“归因于……”，而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“转移到”[D]compare to“与……比较”均不符合题意。
14.[标准答案] [D] experienced
[选项分析] 此处很简单，前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young一致修饰managers,强调新公司的领导年轻并缺乏经验，只有[D]experienced最合适。
15. [标准答案] [C] also
16. [标准答案] [D]equally
[选项分析] 这题是考察副词修饰spread, 但是更要注意的是该句“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门，而不是那些不快乐的部门。”中该空与后面的inequality形成复现关系，所以很容易判断出答案选择[D]equally。
17. [标准答案] [C] while
18. [标准答案] [C]hints
[选项分析] 该题可以看出是考察动词与at的固定搭配，arrive at是“到达，抵达”，jump at是“扑向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“袭击，攻击”，文章中的at least 和that possibility论证了这是一种可能，只有hint at有这层含义。
19. [标准答案] [A]shape
[选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“影响”未来看法含义的动词，[B]是“再发现”[C]是“使简化，使单纯”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除，A 是“塑造，形成，影响”，所以A项是最佳答案。
20. [标准答案] [B]lean towards
[考点分析] 本空考察动词词组，且该词组词义应与and前面意思保持一致，且作用对象为研发。[A]pray for 祈祷 [B]lean towards 倾向 [C]give away 放弃，泄露 [D]send out 放出，给予。只有[B]选项能表达一种递进含义。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and
organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.
21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
B. academic backgrounds
C. career prospects
23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
A. help students learn other computer languages
B. have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C. need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
A. compete with a future army of programmers
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. bring forth innovative computer technologies
25. The word “coax” (Line4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to____.
21 答案 B remodel the way of thinking.
解析：此题是文中人物观点题。根据Cortina定位到第二段前三句。Cortina认为尽早接触计算机科学是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 译为在转变思维程序方面小孩不像年龄较大的学生一样困难，即B remodel the way of thinking 转变思维方式即为同义替换。
22 答案 D interest
23 答案 A help students learn other computer languages
解析：文中人物观点题。题干问的是Deborah Seehorn认为在Flatiron这里所学到的技能将能怎么样，据此定位到第五段But处，和题干基本一致，该句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”，意思是他们学到的技能可以应用于任何编码语言。对比答案选项，A选项的意思是“帮助学生学习其他的计算机语言”属于原文定位处的同义替换。
24 答案 C become better prepared for the digitalized world
解析：细节题。题干指出：根据最后一段，Flatiron的学生被期望去干什么。据此定位到最后一段的These kids are going to be处，是题干的同义复现。定位句“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”，意思是学生们越早学越好。C选项“为数字化的未来做更好的准备”是同义概述。
25 答案 B persuade
解析：词义句意题，结合上下文来解题。根据coax此单词，定位到最后一段最后一句“how to coax the machine into producing what they want”，考察固定搭配“persuade…into…”。A选项挑战，B选项劝服，C选项使恐慌，D选项误导。考生做题时一定要注意结合上下文来推测生词的词义，这是命题人的出题 规律。
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often gray landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species，” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe， the leading role in managing the species in______
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
26 答案 A its drastically decreased population
解析：此题是原因细节题。根据关键词定位到第一段But前后关于lesser prairie chickens 数量2million和22,000的强烈对比。此外第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”都可以得知A its drastically decreased population 数量的急剧下降为正确答案。
27 答案 C granted less federal regulatory powers
解析：此题是原因细节题。根据关键词定位到第二段第四句，They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. 而But 之后是截然相反的事实，即政府授予了更少的管理权。故而C granted less federal regulatory powers为正确答案。
28 答案 A agree to pay a sum for compensation
解析：推断题。题干问的是从第三段推出来：无意伤害的那些人是不会被检举的如果怎么样。根据题干定位到第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”，题干中问的if即原文的as long as的同意替换，原文as long as的意思是：只要他们签署了计划。下一句说道，该计划要求个体和企业去支付基金。对应选项A选项“赞同支付赔偿”属于同义替换。
29 答案 D the states
解析：此题是细节题。根据关键词定位到第三段最后一句the idea is to let the“states”remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, Ashe said. 其中in the driver’s seat对应题干中的the leading role, 故而D states为正确答案。
30 答案 C environmental groups
解析：文中人物观点题。题干问的是Jay Lininger最可能支持谁，大写人名定位到末段最后一句。最后一句提到：生物学家Jay Lininger说道联邦政府要把责任推给导致鸟类灭绝的企业，显然是对政府和企业的反对。再往前看一句，指出：企业团体和政府部门观点一致，环境学家与其观点恰巧一致。因此，Jay Lininger最支持环境团体的观点了。
That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully： There’s never any time to read.
What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption”. Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes)as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them”. No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow” into “soul time”. You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.
31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because
[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to
[A] update their to-do lists
[B] make passing time fulfilling
[C] carry their plans through
[D] pursue carefree reading
33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps
[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
[B] develop online reading habits
[C] promote ritualistic reading
[D] achieve immersive reading
34. “Carry a book with you at all times” can work if
[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be
[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
[B] How to Find Time to Read
[C] How to Set Reading Goals
[D] How to Read Extensively
31 答案 D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed.
解析：因果细节题。题干指出：传统的时间管理方法不起作用的原因是什么。根据题干定位到第二段首句指出the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient，是题干的同义替换，但要找原因。整段都在分析过程环节，最终原因必然在该段末句提到。直接定位到该段末句，指出深入阅读不仅需要时间，而且是一种仅仅通过有效无法获得的一种时间。结合选项D，深入阅读所需的无法得到确保，是原文末句的同义替换。
32 答案 B make passing time fulfilling
解析：题干问的是“empty bottles”暗喻证明了人们在做什么方面有压力，empty bottles直接可以在文中Gary Eberle所说的话中找到：“The future comes at us like empty bottles…”。其所说的话证明的目的必然是为了说明前一句的观点。因此，该题定位到三段“try to slot…but not the most fulfilling kind”，该句就指出：只会处理目标集中的阅读，这是有用的，但不是最有满足感的。结合选项B使流逝的时间更有满足感，是原文的同义替换。
33 答案 D achieve immersive reading
解析：文中人物观点题，注意区分文中人物观点和作者观点。题干问的是Eberle赞同为阅读设定规定性时间帮助什么。根据题干精确定位到第四段第二句：“You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, E…..into soul time”，意思是你会认为这可以提升效率性思维设定，但实际上这些行为帮助我们跨入到灵魂阅读时间。对应选项D，获得深入阅读，属于同义替换。
34 答案 A reading becomes your primary business of the day
解析：细节题。题干指出：总是带一本书会起作用如果怎么样。根据题干定位到末段中间部分“carry a book with you at all times can actually work, too … so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business.”，意思是这样的话阅读就成为默认状态，偶尔会出来管理工作(注意business并非默认状态，非主要事情)。对应选项A 阅读成为每天的主要任务，是该句的同义替换。
35 答案 B How to Find Time to Read
Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. While younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.” I can’t afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen.” Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young. “I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn’t have college degrees,” Schneider said. “I don’t think people are capable of that anymore.”
36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is_____.
[A] trying out different lifestyles
[B] having a family with children
[C] working beyond retirement age
[D] setting up a profitable business
37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to ____.
[A] favor a slower life pace
[B] hold an occupation longer
[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
[D] give priority to childcare outside the home
38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will ____.
[A] become increasingly clear
[B] focus on materialistic issues
[C] depend largely on political preferences
[D] reach almost all aspects of American life
39. Both young and old agree that ____.
[A] good-paying jobs are less available
[B] the old made more life achievements
[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
[D] getting established is harder for the young
40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
[A] He found a dream job after graduating from college.
[B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success.
[C] His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.
[D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging.
36 答案 B having a family with children
解析：此题是细节题。根据关键词定位到第二段第一句Across generational lines,…including getting married, having children…即成功的标志包括结婚生子，故而正确选项是B having a family with children.
37 答案 C attach importance to pre-marital finance
解析：此题是细节题。根据关键词定位到第三段第一句Young people…to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children…即年轻人认为夫妻在结婚前或者生小孩前应该在经济上是稳定的，故而C attach importance to pre-marital finance为正确答案。
38 答案 D reach almost all aspects of American life
解析：此题是细节题。根据关键词定位到第四段第一句…those just starting…will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects …即这些期待即将渗透到美国生活的各个方面，故而D reach almost all aspects of American life为正确答案。
39 答案 D getting established is harder for the young
解析：此题是文中人物观点题。根据关键词定位到第五段第一句…it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. 即与年长者相比，现如今的年轻人维持生计更加困难，故而D getting established is harder for the young为正确答案。
40 答案 C His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.
解析：此题是正误判断题。根据关键词定位到第六段第五句Looking back…his parents could provide a comfortable life for the children even though neither had completed college when he was young.即父母即便没有上过大学但仍旧可以为孩子提供舒适的生活，故而His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree.为正确答案。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
[C]Express your emotions
[D]Don't overthink it
[E]Be easily pleased
[G]Ask for help
As adults,it seems that we are constantly pursuing happiness,often with mixed results.Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy.instead,they look after their wellbeing instinctively,and usually more effectively than we do as grownups.Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.
What does a child do when he's sad? He cries.When he's angry?He shouts.Scared?Probably a bit of both.As we grow up,we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours,which is in many ways a good thing.But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions,especially negative ones.that's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill.What we need to do is find a way to acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately, and then-again like children-move.
A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was nine years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't stop talking about it.Too often we believe that a new job,bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content,but the reality is these things have very little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.
Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies , increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and even have a greater chance of fighting off enfection. All of which, of course, have a positive effect on happiness levels.
The problem with being a grown up is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with---work,mortgage payments,figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love.Those things might be social,sporting,creative or completely random(dancing aroud the living room,anyone?)--it doesn't matter,so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects,such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.
Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy.Scientists tell us this can backfire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said:"Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness."And in that,once more,we need to look to the example of our children,to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural by product of the way they live.
41. C 表达情感。开头以问句的方式：“孩子悲伤时会怎样?孩子生气时会如何?他们的表达方式与大人不同，成人更多会选择压抑情感，并且会有不好的后果，比如致病。紧接着最后一句算是总结句：我们要找到一种合适的方式表达，像孩子那样。重点在哪里?整段不离的中心意思，重复的出现那就是情感的表达喽。选项为 C
42.E举例子的目的无非是为了证明观点。但是从例子也是可以总结出想要表达的意思的。讲到一个小女孩因为一个廉价的圣诞礼物就可以高兴，并且很快乐，就旨在讲小小的幸福。再来看看例子后面的观点。提到成人的世界里所谓的车啊，房啊之类的貌似会让我们 幸福的东西其实不然。所以一个instead 直接把本段的中心意思表达了出来，那就是幸福来自于小小的事情。对应选项E
43. A 一句话出现在第二句。问句之后，如果我们能够“愚蠢“那么一点点，我们将会有各种好处，对不对。那么这一段几乎大段的篇幅都花在这一句上了，主旨更加明显那就是：去这样做吧。Be silly.
44.B 这一段讲到成人的世界里的确有太多让人烦恼的东西，But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the things we love 享受自己喜欢的东西也是很重要的。接下来举例子，各种具体事例说明那些我们可以做的可以享受的事情，并且最后说出了他们的好处。从前往后一直再说我们应该放松，享受。所以啊，在剩下的可选择的选项中只有have funs比较合适了。
45.D 不要可以去想怎样才幸福，应用了哲人的一句话来说明这个道理，旨在告诉大家当让是过程就是幸福的了。最后可以用排除法。G寻求帮助根本未提及。F 选项可以直接排除。那么对应关系，来看看D 不要想太多。“无欲无求，本就是幸福啦。“最终选定D
Section III Translation
Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple:The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,00 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead begin shopping emotionally - which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
Section IV Writing
Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend Jack wrote an email to congratulate you, and ask advice on translation. Write him a reply to
2)give your advice.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the address .(10 point)
I’m writing to express my gratitude for your congratulation on my success in the translation contest.
As regard to my experience, I would like to offer you some proposals in this part. First and foremost, I strongly suggest you that you need to practice with painstaking effort in this field. What’s more, you had better have more communication with foreigners, which guarantees that you have a deep understanding of foreign culture. Last but not least, you are supposed to participate in some international events to accumulate a wealth of practical experience.
Thanks again and I do hope you could take my suggestions into consideration. I wish you have good luck and make a great success in your future study.
Suppose your cousin LI MING has just been admitted to a university write him/her a letter to：
(2)give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. DO not sign your own name at the end of the letter，Use zhangwei.
Suppose your cousin LI MING has just been admitted to a university write him/her a letter to：
(4)give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life
称呼： Dear Jack注意称呼中，后面的逗号不可丢，也不能写成冒号。
第一段：写作内容需涵盖两点：写信目的，表明感谢来自朋友的祝贺;可以采用这样的表达方式：I’m writing to express my gratitude for your congratulation on my success in the translation contest.
第二段： 写作内容应以建议为主体。在这个过程中可以把日常我们如何提高的方式写进正文，比如多加练习、多与外国人交流，多多接触国际事务等。本篇老师主要从这些方面进行论述，表达如下As regard to my experience, I would like to offer you some proposals in this part. First and foremost, I strongly suggest you that you need to practice with painstaking effort in this field. What’s more, you had better have more communication with foreigners, which guarantees that you have a deep understanding of foreign culture. Last but not least, you are supposed to participate in some international events to accumulate a wealth of practical experience.
第三段：再次强调重申写信目的，如Tha Thanks again and I do hope you could take my suggestions into consideration. I wish you have good luck and make a great success in your future study.
落款： Yours sincerely, 特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;签名： Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。
Write an essay based on the following chart. you should
1) interpret the chart and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points).
As is clearly reflected in the above pie chart, the purpose of students travelling abroad demonstrates obvious differences in one college of China. According to the data given, the purpose of enjoying the beautiful landscape takes a comparatively large share, accounting for 37%, while that of relieving pressure also takes away 20% of the whole proportion.
What triggers this phenomenon? It is not difficult to put forward several factors responsible for this phenomenon. To start with, with the rapid economic development of economy, people, including college students, are becoming increasingly wealthy, which enables them to afford the once-deemed- expensive oversea traveling. In order to enjoy the charming landscape all around the world, a large proportion of students choose to travel abroad. What’s more, along with the ever-accelerating improvement of economy and society is also the ever-increasing work and life pressure. Consequently, the purpose of relieving pressure ranks the second among all the purposes for folks to travel around the world.
In view of the arguments above, we can conclude that the current phenomenon is of no surprise. And therefore, it can be predicted that admiring the scenery and alleviating pressure will still be the main purpose for people to arrange a traveling to other countries.
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work.Today is no different， with academics， writers， and activists once again 1 that technology is replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 . A few wealthy people will own all the capital， and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland..
A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort， one 4 by purposelessness： Without jobs to give their lives 5 ， people will simply become lazy and depressed. 6 today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression， double the rate for 7 Americans. Also， some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality， mental-health problems， and addicting9 poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the 13 of work， a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure. Today， the 15 of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring， degrading， unhealthy， and a waste of human potential，” says John Danaher， a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.
These days， because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers， people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work， I often feel 18 ，” Danaher says， adding， “In a world in which I don’t have to work， I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.
1. [A] boasting [B] denying [C] warning [D] ensuring
2. [A] inequality [B] instability [C] unreliability [D] uncertainty
3. [A] policy [B]guideline [C] resolution [D] prediction
4. [A] characterized [B]divided [C] balanced [D]measured
5. [A] wisdom [B] meaning [C] glory [D] freedom
6. [A] Instead [B] Indeed [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless
7. [A] rich [B] urban [C]working [D] educated
8. [A] explanation [B] requirement [C] compensation [D] substitute
9. [A] under [B] beyond [C] alongside [D] among
10. [A] leave behind [B] make up [C] worry about [D] set aside
[答案][C] worry about
11. [A] statistically [B] occasionally [C] necessarily [D] economically
12. [A] chances [B] downsides [C] benefits [D] principles
13. [A] absence [B] height [C] face [D] course
14. [A] disturb [B] restore [C] exclude [D] yield
15. [A] model [B] practice [C] virtue [D] hardship
16. [A] tricky [B] lengthy [C] mysterious [D] scarce
17. [A] demands [B] standards [C] qualities [D] threats
18. [A] ignored [B] tired [C] confused [D] starved
19. [A] off [B] against [C] behind [D] into
20. [A] technological [B] professional [C] educational [D] interpersonal
解析：空格之后的宾语从句部分“technology is replacing human workers.”结合选项，应该选择warning。其他三项[A] boasting [B] denying [D] ensuring
空格之后的内容 “holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort，”该定语从句是对空格词汇的修饰与说明，既然文中用到了will 这一个表示将来时态的助动词，故答案为prediction。
考点：后置定语 + 固定搭配
one 4 by purposelessness。其他三项均不符合，故排除。
Without jobs to give their lives 5 ， people will simply become lazy and depressed.空格所在句后面的表述与空格前的内容属于并列关系，由逗号连接。答案选择meaning。[A] wisdom [C] glory [D] freedom 这些选项都表示褒义色彩和后面 lazy、depressed 矛盾。
6. [答案][B] Indeed
分析下四个选项可以看出并无体现因果关系 故[A] Thus排除，另外instead，nevertheless 表示转折语意，但是上下文逻辑并无体现。 故[A]Instead [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless均排除。
One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression， double the rate for 7 Americans.根据上下文对比的语意对照应该选择working。前面提到unemployed 。此处在进行对比，故选择表示反义呼应的词working。
some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality， mental-health problems， and addicting 9 poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs.
[答案][C] worry about
Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease.But表示转折语意。doesn't necessarily不一定。符合此处语意需要，故为答案。
Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment.
In the 13 of work， a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure.
In the 13 of work， a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure.该空格所选词汇的主语是a society 宾语是different circumstances.根据主谓一致的原则应该选择yield。语义为：产生。
overblown.一词为解题线索。含义：吹散 吹倒 表贬义。后面的内容Many jobs are boring， degrading， unhealthy， and a waste of human potential，” says John Danaher， a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.是对这句话的进一步解释，结合前后的上下文语义理解，应选择virtue，其他选项均排除。
16. [答案][D] scarce
because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers， people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 of their jobs.结合常识认知及上下文理解应该选择scarce。
17. [答案][A] demands
18. [答案][B] tired
“When I come home from a hard day’s work， I often feel 18 ，” Danaher says， adding， “In a world in which I don’t have to work， I might feel rather different”.
19. [答案][D] into
perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.
“Throw oneself into ......”意思是：一头扎进;投身于，积极从事
perhaps different enough to throw himself into a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.此处空格处答案和前面的intensity 形成呼应与关联。故此处professional符合语义需要，入选。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley's world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.
Parkrun is succeeding where London's Olympic "legacy" is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run-up to 2012-but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to "inspire a generation." The success of Parkrun offers answers.
Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally "grassroots", concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods-making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.
21.【题干】According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has_____.
A.gained great popularity
B.created many jobs
C.strengthened community ties
D.become an official festival
【答案】A【解析】由题干中的关键词According to Paragraph 1, 可以快速的定位到文中的第一段，第一段讲了每周六大约有五万多人都会在他们当地的公园里跑步，跑步的年龄跨度之大：从4岁的小朋友到祖父母年纪的人都有;跑步所用的时间跨度也很大：从世界纪录的13分48秒到一个小时。由此可见，这是一个全民运动，与A选项的 great popularity相互对应，所以选A. 其他选项，B创造了很多就业机会;C增强了社会的凝聚力;D成为一个官方的节日;这几个选项原文中都没有涉及，所以排除。 22.【题干】The author believes that London's Olympic "legacy" has failed to_____.
A.boost population growth
B.promote sport participation
C.improve the city's image
D.increase sport hours in schools
【答案】B【解析】可以发现原文中第二段第一句话Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing与题干中的关键词 London’s Olympic “legacy” has failed to...对应，所以可以锁定文章的第二段，从而找出解题的关键。第二段前半部分讲了在最初的时候Olympic的目标，然而，事实却事与愿违，...but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. 由这句话可以看出，Olympic并没有推动大众的参与性，与预期的目标不符，所以选择B。 23.【题干】Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it_____.
A.aims at discovering talents
B.focuses on mass competition
C.does not emphasize elitism
D.does not attract first-timers
【答案】C【解析】由题干中的关键词Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that...可以知道这是想考察Parkrun和Olympic的区别。追溯到原文，可以看到文中的第三段第一句话：Parkrun is not a race but a time trial.从这句话可以排除A和B，因为A和B都和竞争有关，D选项可以从这一段的这一句话：there is much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is ...可知，Parkrun有很多第一次参加的人，所以排除D. 最后可以知道，答案选C，因为parkrun不是比赛，所以就不重视精英主义。 24.【题干】With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should_____.
A.organize "grassroots" sports events
B.supervise local sports associations
C.increase funds for sports clubs
D.invest in public sports facilities
【答案】D【解析】由题干中的关键词the governments should...,可以知道，命题人想要考察的是对于Parkrun这一项大众运动，政府应该做点什么。所以，考生要快速的定位到原文中有关政府的段落，即第四段，If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. 从这里可以知道，作者希望政府能够为Parkrun提供场所和钱，并针对学校制定相关条例以鼓励全民运动。由此可以排除A，B，C. 最终选择D。 25.【题干】The author's attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is_____.
【答案】B【解析】由题干中的关键词the author’s attitude to what UK government have done for sport可以再次锁定原文中关于政府的部分，可见这一题与24题是有一定联系的。第四段一开始作者提出了自己对政府的期许，但是事实上，政府却没有达到这一期许。But successive government have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. 政府负责卖地，从地方政府压榨金钱，不重视学校的体育运动。可见，此处作者指责政府的一系列行为，由此可以得出答案B. tolerant:宽容的，容忍的; uncertain：含糊的，不确定的;sympathetic：同情的，赞同的。 Text 2
With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, "and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”
Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.
Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device-it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. "Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need," says Radesky.
On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it-particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.
26.【题干】According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.
A.simplify routine matters
B.absorb user attention
C.better interpersonal relations
D.increase work efficiency
【答案】B【解析】由题干中的关键词Jenny Radesky, 可以快速的定位到文中提到此人物的第一段第二行，接着题干中说digital products are designed to..可以知道，考查的是数码产品的目的，回归到文中第一段第二行，可知Jenny Radesky说了这样一句话：Tech is designed to really suck on you in, and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement....电子产品就是为了促进最大程度的参与性，由此可以得出答案B为了吸引用户的注意力。其余选项在Jenny Radesky的话中都没有体现。 27.【题干】Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices ______.
A.takes away babies’ appetite
B.distracts children’s attention
C.slows down babies’ verbal development
D.reduces mother-child communication
【答案】D【解析】由题干中的关键词food-testing exercise, mother’s use of devices. 可以快速的定位到第二段第二行:She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. 从这里可以知道，母亲使用手机会减少20%的语言交流机会，39%的非语言交流。由此可以得出答案为D.减少了母亲和孩子之间的交流。 28.【题干】Radesky’s cites the “still face experiment” to show that _______.
A.it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions
B.verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange
C.children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood
D.parents need to respond to children's emotional needs
【答案】D【解析】本题目是具体细节题。题干中的关键词Radesky和still face experiment定位到倒数第三段大写R处，题目问实验一定要找实验结论，结论在本段最后一句的but之后，这里提到了parents need be to responsive ...to...emotional need，父母需要对情感需求做出回应。正确答案D是原文的原词复现。干扰项A的blank expressions是原文实验里面的具体内容，非实验表明;选项B是最后一句的个别词干扰;选项C偷换概念，不是children are insensitive，而是parents。 29.【题干】The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.
A.protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies
B.teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year
C.ensure constant interaction with their children
D.remain concerned about kid's use of screens
【答案】C【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词oppressive ideology和大写字母Tronick定位到最后一段的第一句话that之后。本句that后的demands对应题干的requires，说道“父母应该总是要交流”。正确选项C的constant interaction对应原文的always interacting。干扰项A的fantasies是定位句下一句中的个别词干扰;选项B的30000words同样是定位句之后的句子中提到的，而且是if的一个条件句;选项D的concerned是末段首句的concerned，但是偷换概念。 30.【题干】According to Tronick, kid’s use of screens may_______.
A.give their parents some free time
B.make their parents more creative
C.help them with their homework
D.help them become more attentive
【答案】A【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干中的大写字母Tronick及关键词kid定位到最后一段的倒数第三句，破折号后面解释了kid’s use of screens的具体目的。“it gives parents time to...”与正确选项A完全一致，属于原文的原词复现。干扰项B的creative并未提及;选项C的homework根据原文的housework进行干扰，原文是父母有时间做家务，而选项是帮助孩子做作业;选项D的attentive并未提及。 Text 3
Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic.
But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits-in fact, it probably enhances it.
Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.
If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.
31.【题干】One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.
A.they think it academically misleading
B.they have a lot of fun to expect in college
C.it feels strange to do differently from others
D.it seems worthless to take off-campus courses
【答案】C【解析】题目问的是高中毕业生不选择间隔年原因之一是什么。根据题目中的high-school和gap year和定位到第一段第一句话。这句话后面一句的after all可以知道后面应该是解释理由了，After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it?这句话是说如果大家秋天都上大学去了，你要是晚了一年看起来有点傻。这个句子等同于C选项中的feel strange to do differently from others，因此选C。 32.【题干】Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.
A.keep students from being unrealistic
B.lower risks in choosing careers
C.ease freshmen’s financial burdens
D.relieve freshmen of pressures
【答案】D【解析】根据题目中的study from the Australia and US可以定位到第三段第一句话Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not.。这句话明确说了有间隔年的学生比没有的要好，好在准备和表现上。所以A：unrealistic和B：choosing career不对。第二句在表现好的更细致地方面进行了描述：preparing them for independence独立性, new responsibilities责任感 and environmental changes环境变化。紧随的破折号后总结说了这是 first-year students一年级学生 often struggle with the most常常有苦恼的。说明最受益的是大学一年级学生，而整段都没提过financial burdens，所以C不对。而D中的pressure是对前面内容的概括性描述，因此答案是D。 33.【题干】The word “acclimation”(Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to_____.
【答案】A【解析】这题根据题干中给的信息，到第三段最后一句中去找答案，Gap year experiences can...when it comes to adjusting to college..., making it easier to...rather than acclimation blunders.这个句子分两部分，逗号+making分词作状语，从功能上是解释补充说明前面半句，所以间隔年的好处是能帮助新生调节适应大学，而不用担心acclimation 问题，所以acclimation当然就是适应的意思了。因此A为正确答案。 34.【题干】A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.
A.avoid academic failures
B.establish long-term goals
C.switch to another college
D.decide on the right major
【答案】D【解析】文章最后一段第一句提到了consider its financial impact on future academic choices。Financial 对应题干中的save money，而academic choices学术选择可以排除A和B。根据最后一段第三句...students...listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes.所以第一句中的academic choices指的就是转专业的事儿，因此选D。 35.【题干】The most suitable title for this text would be_____.
A.In Favor of the Gap Year
B.The ABCs of the Gap Year
C.The Gap Year Comes Back
D.The Gap Year: A Dilemma
【答案】A【解析】第二段第一句话But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years.就用but句说明了全文就是想说间隔年你值得拥有。而选项中只有A选项in favor of是持正面积极态度的，因此选A。 Text 4
Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.
Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?”“Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”
At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
“We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”
36.【题干】More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.
A.exhausted unprecedented management efforts
B.consumed a record-high percentage of budget
C.severely damaged the ecology of western states
D.caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure
【答案】B【解析】本题目是原因细节题。根据题干的关键词wildfires和national concern，以及时间词2015，定位到第二段首句。本句提到US花费了大量的budget，与选项B中的budget原词复现，high是原文more than的同义转化，consume同义替换原文spent。干扰项A的management是首段末句的人物Max Moritz的职位;选项C的western states是首段首句的though从句内容，和题干无关，属于答非所问;选项D的infrastructure是原文末尾的破折号里such as的内容，两个破折号里面一定不选。
37.【题干】Moritz calls for the use of "a magnifying glass" to _____.
A.raise more funds for fire-prone areas
B.avoid the redirection of federal money
C.find wildfire-free parts of the landscape
D.guarantee safer spending of public funds
【答案】D【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词a magnifying glass和大写字母Moritz定位到第四段第二句，目的就是最后一句。本句提到“to redirect those funds”，基金重新引导，本段首句也提及a huge problem from...public expenditure。正确答案D的guarantee safer spending是对这两句的完全概括，讨论公共基金更好的花费问题。干扰项A提到fund，但未说raise more，添加无关内容;选项B与原文刚好相反，不是avoid避免;选项C是对原文lower-hazard parts of the landscape的偷换概念。 38.【题干】While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.
A.public debates have not settled yet
B.fire-fighting conditions are improving
C.other factors should not be overlooked
D.a shift in the view of fire has taken place
【答案】C【解析】本题是文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的关键词climate is a key element及大写字母Moritz定位到第7段的内容。本句中Moritz提到“should not come at the expense of the equation”，不以平等的代价而来。正确答案A中的不应该忽视其他因素是对本句的同义转化与概括。干扰项A的public debates来自第6段的the focus但未提及settle的话题，也非本题定位句;干扰项B的conditions是第6段的最后一句conditions that worsen fires，偷换动词worsen与improving;选项D的a shift in the view of是出现在第五段，时态错误，原文是would require，选项是has taken place。 39.【题干】The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.
A.discover the fundamental makeup of nature
B.explore the mechanism of the human systems
C.maximize the role of landscape in human life
D.understand the interrelations of man and nature
【答案】D【解析】本题目为原因细节题。根据题干关键词simplified view Moritz定位到第8段的首句，“the human systems and the landscapes... are linked and the interactions go both ways”,人类与环境是相联系的，并且是相互作用的。正确答案D的interactions是原文的原词复现，man and nature同义替换原文的human... and landscapes。干扰项A原文未提及;选项B的human systems是原词，但是并无mechanism偷换概念;选项C的landscape和human是原词出现，但添加无关信息maximize。 40.【题干】Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.
A.do away with
B.come to terms with
C.pay a price for
D.keep away from
【答案】B【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的大写字母Professor Balch和fire，man定位到最后一段的最后一句，“important to understand...human connection with fire”，人与火之间的联系。正确答案B的意思是达成协议，符合原文。干扰项A的do away with是废除;选项C的pay a price for是付出代价;选项D的keep away from远离。
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.
Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.
But there is also a different way to look at the data.
Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.
For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.
At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.
At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.
But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.
These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.
"The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is."
Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says.
[A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools。
41。 Jay Deuwell[B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill。
42。 Jason Stenquist[C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore。
43。 Birgit Klohs[D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers。
44。 Rob Spohr[E] says that for factory owners， workers are harder to find because of stiff competition。
45.Julie Parks[F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing。
[G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents。
根据题干人名Jay 定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他们很难发现他们有工作邀请。harder对应选项 stiff(艰难地)
根据题干人名Jason Stenquist对应文中“I love working with tools. I love creating,” he says.我爱与工具打交道，我喜欢创新，tool对应选项tool
根据题干人名Birgit Klohs，定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”记住他们的爸爸妈妈都下岗了，他们归因于生产萧条。文中blame对应选项blame
根据人名Rob Spohr,对应文中 The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, 工作之间的差距是那个不需要技能，而那些需要很多技能。文中skill对应选项skill(技能)
题干问Julie的观点，对应文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我从没有得到过这么多来自制造商的注意，attraction对应选项attract(吸引)
Section III Translation
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all!
2017年英语二的翻译题是一篇关于梦想的小短文，全文共5句话，前两句话比较简短且简单，后三句较长，但难度也都不大。第一句话是个简单句，“我的梦想一直是在时装设计和出版领域找寻一份职业”。第二句话中，secondary school 是“中学”短语move on to是“继续做某事，转移到”，全句的意思是“在我中学毕业的两年前，我曾选修了一门“缝纫和设计”的课程，thinking that 做了非谓语动词的结构并且起到伴随状语的作用，翻译为“并以为我能再继续去修一门”时装设计“的课程”第三句话中，前半句是主语，谓语加宾语从句，后面是so引导的结果状语从句，during that course 是时间状语，I 是主语，realised是谓语动词，that引导宾语从句，其中personalities不能理解为个性，品格，在文中应该指名人，精英，人才，so引导的结果状语从句中也是主语，谓语加宾语从句的结构，全句的意思是“然而，就在整个学习过程中，我意识到，我将来在这个领域是无法与那些富于创新精神的精英人才相比的。于是，我断定这条路行不通”。第四句话中，Before applying for university是时间状语，that引导宾语从句，because引导原因状语从句，本句的难点在于writing was, and still is, one of my favorite activities这一部分中was 和is的翻译方法，表示过去和将来的状态，apply for是申请的意思，journalism要翻译成“新闻学”不能直译为“新闻业，新闻工作”，本句的意思是“在申请上大学之前，我对所有人讲:我想学新闻学，因为，写作曾经是并且现在也一直是我最喜欢的事情之一。”最后一句主句是主谓宾结构I said it，后面是because引导原因状语从句，从句中是I thought that主谓加宾从结构，此句难点在于fashion and me together was just a dream的译法，不能直译，要意译为“我认为从事时装设计不过是一个梦想”， apart from是“除了”的意思，结合上文fashion industry也可意译为“时装设计”，所以全句的意思是“但是，说实话，我之所以这样说，是因为我认为从事时装设计不过是我的一个梦想，我也知道，除了我之外，没有人能想象出我会从事时装设计的工作。”
Section IV Writing
Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to
1)Accept the invitation, and
2)Introduce the key points of your presentation.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.
Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.
Do not write the address .(10 points)
Dear Professor Williams,
I feel really delighted and honored to be invited by you to give a presentation to the foreign students, and I will certainly be careful to prepare for the making of it.
To let the overseas students know much about our Chinese culture, I think that my presentation is supposed to include at least two key points. On the one hand, I will put much stress on the history of China. You must know that our China is an ancient country with a pretty long history. On the other hand, my second strong point should be put on the main diet in China. The reason is that Chinese people in different regions have totally different inclination to choose food and Chinese food everywhere is quite delicious.
Those two points are what I would like to emphasize, and I would like to know of your opinions on this and I wish you could give me some further ideas on it. I am looking forward to your reply. Thank you.
从该书信的称呼来看，属于知道对方姓名且知其职业或身份，那么如果写成Dear Sir or Madam, 或者To Whom It May Concern，是不合理的，而且直呼其名不加头衔也同样不合适，因此要使用Dear Professor Williams. 注意这几个单词全部都需要大写开头字母。尤其大家直接用笔来写的时候，一定要尽量突出首字母。
落款： Yours sincerely, 特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;
签名： Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。 落款和前面左、右对齐都可以。
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
The chart shows great changes in the number of museums and their visitors during the period from 2013 to 2015. According to the data given, what we cannot fail to see is that there is a sharp growth in the amounts of museums from 4165 to 4697 over the period from 2013 to 2015, while it is also pronounced that the number of their visitors increased sharply from 637.8 million to 781.1 million during this period.
At least two fundamental factors could be identified to contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with, it is widely admitted that with the rapid economic development in the whole social climate has been the dramatically upgraded living standard, which results in the common phenomenon that people in growing numbers can afford the once-deemed-expensive experience. In addition, there is no denying that the authorities concerned have issued a series of preferential policies to protect and promote the development of cultural industry, which encourages a widespread extension of visitors.
From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that this trend will certainly maintain for quite a while in the near future, which will be of great benefits to our country and individual as well.
SectionⅠ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B], [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong thatpeople will22 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will3
In a seriesof experiments, behavioral scientists at the University ofChicago and the
Wisconsin school of Business tested students ’ willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would
6 an electric shock when clicked.
Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the student who knew that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli,
9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
The drive to 10is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for
11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can12new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such13
can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do14things is a profound one.
Unhealthycuriosity is possible to15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who
were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less
likely to17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the18 of
following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine19it is worth the
endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of
curiosity,”Hsee says. In other words, don’t read online comments.
1.A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve
2.A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret
3.A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead
4.A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat
5.A.trial B.message C.review D.concept
6.A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt
7.A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though
8.A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen
9.A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to
10.A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget
11.A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling
12.A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from
13.A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence
14.A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive
15.A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist
16.A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict
17.A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend
18.A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty
19.A.how B.why C.where D.whether
20.A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies
Section IIReading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?
As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’ s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a bachelor ’ s degree opens moredoors.Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek ’ s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of.
22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.
A.have a stereotyped mind
B.have no career motivation
C.are financially disadvantaged
D.are not academically successful
23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.
A.used to have more job opportunities
B.used to have big financial concerns
C.are entitled to more educational privileges
D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing
24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.
A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education
D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.
While fossil fuels—coal，oil，gas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world：They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummetingprices of renewables， especially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland， for example，wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest of the world takes the lead，notably China and Europe，the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift.In March，for the first time，wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US，reported the US Energy Information Administration.
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels — especially coal — as the path to economic growth.In a recent speech in Iowa，he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But that message did not play well with many in Iowa，where wind turbines dot the fields and provide
36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question“what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?”has
provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers ， who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
While there ’ s a long way to go ， the trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
26.The word“plummeting”(Line 3，Para.2)is closest in meaning to.
27.According to Paragraph 3，the use of renewable energy in America.
A.is progressing notably
B.is as extensive as in Europe
C.faces many challenges
D.has proved to be impractical
28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .
A.wind is a widely used energy source
B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
C.tech giants are investing in clean energy
D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
A.Its application has boosted battery storage.
B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.
A.will bring the US closer to other countries
B.will accelerate global environmental change
C.is not really encouraged by the US government
D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing — Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bn，but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service，which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’friendships and social lives.
Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities，but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through.Even without knowing what was in the messages，the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was
enormously revealing and still could be.What political journalist，what party whip，would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May ’ s enemies are currentlyplotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power.But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them.The users of their services are not their customers.That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and Google，the two virtual giants，dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.
The product they’re selling is data，and we，the users，convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphidsfor the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield.Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship，even if both sides benefit.
31.According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.
32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.
A.worsen political disputes
B.mess up customer records
C.pose a risk to Facebook users
D.mislead the European commission
33.According to the author,competition law.
A.should serve the new market powers
B.may worsen the economic imbalance
C.should not provide just one legal solution
D.cannot keep pace with the changing market
34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.
A.they are not defined as customers
B.they are not financially reliable
C.the services are generally digital
D.the services are paid for by advertisers
35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.
A.a win-win business model between digital giants
B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants
C.the benefits provided for digital giants’customers
D.the relationship between digital giants and their users
To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy,Cal Newport,author of Deep work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world,recommends building a habit of “deep work”— the ability to focus without distraction.
There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task;developing a daily ritual;or taking a “ journalistic ” approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.
Newport also recommends “deepscheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time. “At any given point,Ishould have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month.Once on the calendar I protect this time like Iwould a doctor ’ s appointment or important meeting”,he writes.
Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your day
—in particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy:The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives,points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups:some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities;others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail,day by day.
While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks,they were wrong:the detailed daily plans demotivated students.Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.
In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime,or as Newport suggests,“be lazy.”
“Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice;it is as indispensable to be brain as Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done, ” he argues.
Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School,believes this counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task,they tend to be more efficient.
“What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain”. says Pillay.
36.The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________. A.keep to your focus time
B.list your immediate tasks C.make specific daily plans D.seize every minute to work
37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________. A.distractions may actually increase efficiency
B.daily schedules are indispensable to studying C.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals D.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected 38. According to Newport, idleness is ________. A.a desirable mental state for busy people
B.a major contributor to physical health
C.an effective way to save time and energy
D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work
39. Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused _______. A.can result in psychological well-being
B.canbring about greater efficiency C.is aimed at better balance in work D.is driven by task urgency
40. This text is mainly about _______.
A.ways to relieve the tension of busy life
B.approaches to getting more done in less time
C.the key to eliminating distractions
D.the cause of the lack of focus time
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A.Just say it
C.Pay a unique compliment
D.Name, places, things
E.Find the “me too”s
F.Skip the small talk
G.Ask for an opinion
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.
You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.
Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.
Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says
“ I want to talk with this person ” — this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something — the first word— but it just won ’ t come out. It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.
Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!
I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”“,Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”.
It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.
Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of“hi”,“hello”, “how are you?”and“what’s going on?”you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.
So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.
When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you ’ ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.
Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.
So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.
You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!
So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about.
When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing.
So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.
That ’ s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!
Section Ⅲ Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough. He can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he reads — everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy”at the dinner table.
That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world works. “Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,”Gates says.
Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write him an email to
1)apologize and explain the situation, and
2)suggest a future meeting.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name. Use“Li Ming” instead.
Do not write your address.(10 points)
Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing you should
1)interpret the chart and
2)give your comments
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)