Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark, A.B.C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to___1___ uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will ___2__ to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will ___3___.
In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to ___4___ themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one ___5___, each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would ___6___ an electric shock when clicked.
Twenty-seven students were told which pens were rigged; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. ___7___ left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more jolts than the students who knew what would ___8___. Subsequent experiments replicated this effect with other stimuli, ___9___ the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
The drive to ___10___ is deeply ingrained in humans, much the same as the basic drives ___11___ or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago, a co-author of the paper. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can ____12 ___ new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such __ 13____ can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do ____14____ things is a profound one.
Unhealthy curiosity is possible to ___15___, however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to ___16___ how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to ___17____ to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the ___18_ _ of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine___ 19____ it is worth the endeavor. “Thinking about long-term ___20___ is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of curiosity,” Hsee says. In other words, don't read online comments.
1. A .resolve B. protect C. discuss D. ignore
2. A refuse B. wait C. seek D .regret
3. A .rise B. last C. mislead D. hurt
4. A. alert B. tie C. expose D. treat
5. A. message B. trial C. review D. concept
6. A. remove B. weaken C. deliver D. interrupt
7. A. Unless B. If C. Though D. When
8. A. happen B. continue C. disappear D. change
9. A rather than B. such as C. regardless D .owing to
10. A. disagree B. forgive C. forget D. discover
11. A. pay B. marriage C. food D. school
12. A. begin with B. rest on C. learn from D. lead to
13. A. withdrawal B. inquiry C. persistence D. diligence
14. A. self-destructive B. self-reliant C. self-evident D. self-deceptive
15. A. resist B. define C. replace D. trace
16. A. predict B. overlook C. design D. conceal
17. A. remember B. choose C. promise D. pretend
18. A. relief B. plan C. outcome D. duty
19. A. whether B. why C. where D. how
20 .A. limitations B. Investments C. strategies D. consequences
1. A. resolve
2. C. seek
解析：本题考查动介词搭配。根据原文语境，需要选择一个动词和后面的“to”连用。A.拒绝做... B.等待做... C. 寻求，力求做... D. 后悔做...结合文意“人们要___ 满足他们的好奇心”来判断，正选为C.寻求，力求做。
3. D. hurt
解析：此处考查词义辨析。根据原文语境，空格所在句指出：这项新研究表明，这种求知需求如此强烈以至于人们寻找答案来满足他们的好奇心即使答案明显本句中的even when(即使)构成了前后的对立关系，因此空格处所填入的词需和前面的感情色彩词“strong”及语义构成对立，只有D选项hurt(令人痛苦)符合要求;另外此处的it is clear that the answer will hurt 也和第一句中的that will obviously be painful 构成了近义复现。故D选项为正确答案。
4. C. expose
解析：固定搭配考查。根据原文语境，考查短语____ sb to sth 意为“让某人承受某事”。因此，C选项为正选。
5. B. trial
解析：根据上文，第二段句首提到in a series of four experiments,说明是在“实验”的语境。结合四个选项，[A]信息[B]实验[C]复习[D]观念，只有B选项和段落语境相符合。因此为正选。
6. C. deliver
解析：动宾搭配。结合语境，“当点击的时候，一半的钢笔会____电流。”根据动宾搭配，本题需要一个动词来搭配电流，考查四个选项，[A] 移除 [B] 削弱 [C] 传递 [D] 打扰 A选项更符合语境。
7. D. When
8. A. happen
9. B. such as
10. D. discover
解析：此处考查上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。这是个中心复现词，文章开篇提出：The human drive to resolve uncertainty is so strong …人们对于寻找答案以消除不确定因素总是乐此不疲。再根据上文的实验，都表示这是一种discover的需求，越是不确定的，越好奇，故选择D。
11 .C. food
解析：此处考查同义复现。这个空出现在卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)的观点中，前后观点没有任何转折连词，所以前后句应该一脉相承。前文中the drive is deeply rooted in human，指的是人类根深蒂固的本性，而且后文也说到curiosity is a good instinct(本能)，探索的动力在人类中根深蒂固，与食物或避难所的基本动力相当。因此此处应该选food。A选项 pay 支付;B选项 marriage 婚姻;D选项schooling 学习教育，皆不符合文意。
12 .D. lead to
解析：破折号的内容是对前文instinct 的解释，说明这种本能能够促进新的科学发展，属于因果关系。A选项 begin with 以…开始;B选项 rest on 取决于;C选项learn from向…学习，皆不符合文意。
13. B. inquiry
解析：此处考查反义复现。原文表达：but sometimes such _________can backfire。 but一词的出现就说明前后两句话是转折句义，前文说好奇心会带来新的科学进步;后文的一个指示代词such一出现，就证明和前句的主语是一致的，在此只能选择curiosity 的近义词，为B inquiry。A 选项 withdrawal 撤回;C选项 persistence 坚持; D选项 diligence 勤奋，皆不符合文意。
14. A. self-destructive
解析：此处考查成分搭配。The insight that curiosity can drive you to do___ things is a profound one。因为前文有所提示，but sometimes such ___can backfire，有时候好奇心会适得其反，这句话也是对于上文的承接，因此这里需要填入的是好奇心带来的副作用的表达，因此选A. self-destructive 自我毁灭的。B 选项 self-reliant自力更生的;C选项 self-evident 显而易见的;D选项self-deceptive自欺欺人的，皆不符合文意。
15. A . resist
解析：此处考查同义复现。Unhealthy curiosity is possible to ___， however。这句话之后出现了论据，用以支撑前文的论点：In a final experiment， participants who were encouraged to predict how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to choose to see such an image，在最后的实验中，那些积极预测自己目睹不太悦目图片感受的受试者，他们选择此类图片的可能性较小。此处picture were less likely to choose to see such an image=resist，是对于本段论点句的同义复现，因为选择A 选项resist。B 选项define定义;C选项replace 替代;D选项trace追踪，皆不符合文意。
解析：此处考查句间逻辑关系，属于句子内部的显性线索。本段首句是本段的中心：然而，抵制病态的好奇心理是并非不可能。所以可以预测出这一段会围绕抵制病态的好奇心会有什么好的影响。In a final experiment， participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image.16题所在句子是participants的后置定语，用来修饰受测者，他们积极地去如何，与后面定语从句中目睹不太愉悦的照片后他们将(would)会有什么样的感觉，可以得出是提前想象出来的，故选择A predict，预测。
17. B. choose
解析：动宾搭配，此处考察句间逻辑关系，属于句子内部的显性线索。此题所在句子结构化简后是participants were less likely to 17 to see such an image。这里面的such image指的是上面提到的an unpleasant picture，所以既然已经知道图片会带来不愉悦的感觉，就不可能去选择了，故选择B .choose选择。
解析：of 引导的后置定语，此处考查句间逻辑关系，属于句子内部的显性线索。These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one‘s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。 18题所在位置是the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time此短语是imagining同位语，用来解释imagining：为利用好奇心可提前想象的结果。所以此题选择是的imagining的同义词。
解析：whether 引导宾语从句，此处考查句间的逻辑关系。imagining can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor。这种结果可以帮助人们决定它们…值得一试。根据句间逻辑关系，这些研究结果表明，利用好奇心可提前想象事件的结果，从而帮助人们决定它们是否值得一试。故A.whether为正确选项
解析：关联对应，对应18题的outcome. “Thinking about long-term 20 is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of curiosity，” 思考长期…才是减轻好奇心负面消极影响的关键所在。负面消极影响是好奇心带来的，所以要考虑这种长期的影响，A选项limitations限制，B选项investment投资 C选项strategies 策略，都不符合语境，故D项为正确选项。
为什么人们要读网络上的负面评论，做一些其他令人痛心的事情? 在《心理科学》 (Psychological Science )上，最近的一项研究解释到这是因为人们有解决不确定因素的内在需求。这项新研究表明，即使人们清楚所得答案终会令人伤心难过，他们也会寻找答案以满足自我好奇心。
在四个一系列的实验中，芝加哥大学布斯商学院(University of Chicago Booth School of Business) 与威斯康星商学院(Wisconsin School of Business) 的行为学家测试学生为满足自身好奇心而对接受厌恶刺激(aversive stimuli) 的意愿程度。在一个试验中，研究人员给每位受试者一堆笔并声称其源于先前的实验。事实是这些笔中有一半在按下笔头时会使人触电。
研究人员告知了27 名受试学生哪些笔是内有玄机，而另外27 名学生只知道有些笔是带电的。当他们独自在房里时，相较于对情况了如指掌的学生，那些不知哪些笔带电的学生按下了更多的笔头，也感受了更多的电击。在之后其他刺激因素的实验中，如指甲刮黑板的声音和令人生厌的昆虫图片，这一效应都一一再现。
芝加哥大学(University of Chicago) 的Christopher Hsee 是该论文的共同作者，他表示人们对于探索发现的需求是根深蒂固的，这与他们对食物和居住地的基本需求不相上下。好奇一向被认为是良好的品质，它引领着人们在科学领域取得一项又一项新突破，但“刨根究底”式的探索亦会适得其反。好奇心也有可能产生‘自作孽不可活’的结果，这一见解非常深刻。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and rote memorization, but practical, reports staff writer Stacy Teicher Khadaroo in this week’s cover story. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly bamboozled by a busted bike chain?
As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffiti desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype ... that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new mantra. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all – and the subtle devaluing of anything less – misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs. Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing, according to the National Skills Coalition, a nonprofit advocacy group. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21. A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of ___.